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OSTEOPENIA & OSTEOPOROSIS

Osteopenia occurs when the body does not make new bone as quickly as it resorbs bone

Osteoporosis is a condition whereby the bones become weak and fragile as a result of bone loss. this means the bones can be more prone to fracture and injury

Exercise physiologist can design individualised exercise programs consisting of:

  • Bone loading exercises: jumping, hopping, skipping, running walking,
  • Strengthening exercises: free weights, machine weights, body weight exercises
  • To reduce the loss of bone and reduce injury risk

OSTEOPOROSIS

Osteopenia and osteoporosis occurs when the body does not make new bone as quickly as it resorbs bone. Osteoporosis is when you have low bone mineral density and osteopenia is considered a midway point between good bone density and osteoporosis. Low bone mineral density causes the bones to become weak and fragile, this means the bones can be more prone to fracture and injury.

Why is exercise important?

Exercise is crucial to maintain or increase your bone mineral density as bones are mechanosensitive and will adapt through training:

An Exercise physiologist can design individualised exercise program targeted to maximise your bone density:

  • Strengthening exercises: free weights, machine weights, body weight exercises
  • Bone loading exercises: jumping, hopping, skipping, running walking,
  • Balance training in different postures; to decrease your risk of falls
  • A balanced diet and adequate vitamin D is also important for maximising bonde density

HOW DO I KNOW I HAVE OSTEOPOROSIS?

Symptoms may include loss of height, rounding of the upper back, forward chin poke and rounded shoulders. Though many people have no symptoms of osteoporosis until they have a bone fracture. 

Osteoporosis is detected through a bone density scan. This scan will produce a T-score.

What are the risk factors for osteoporosis?

Physical inactivity, cigarette smoking, poor diet, long term use of corticosteroids and post menopausal women.

WHAT YOUR T-SCORE MEANS?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO):

A T-score of -1.0 or above is normal bone density. Examples are 0.9, 0 and -0.9.

A T-score between -1.0 and -2.5 means you have low bone density or osteopenia. Examples are T-scores of -1.1, -1.6 and -2.4.

A T-score of -2.5 or below is a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Examples are T-scores of -2.6, -3.3 and -3.9.

The lower a person’s T-score, the lower the bone density. A T-score of -1.0 is lower than a T-score of 0.5 and a T-score of -3.5 is lower than a T-score of -3.0.

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